of the third generation, which are bone substitutes a chemically-bonded, gradually absorbed and replaced by a bone nowotworzącą. Unlike traditional sintered bioceramic materials, of predetermined shape and dimension of the cement type materials are present in the form of readily moldable, plastic formulations. Such a form allows for a tight fit additions to the shape and dimensions of the cavity. Of this invention are obtained by composite materials. by mixing with each other. solid phase – a powder and a liquid phase, whereby the paste is produced directly in the binding site of implantation. According to the invention the solid phase of sulfate hemihydrate (VI) and synthetic calcium hydroxyapatite, which, thanks to the modification is closer to natural bone apatite. The starting solid phase earns a solution of chitosan in aqueous acid octowego.Półwodny sulfate (VI) is a component of a calcium-binding, serving as a binder to ensure the consistency of the material.
In humid environments, the compound passes into dihydrate gypsum bioresorbable, which after implantation is gradually replaced by a newly emerging bone. Gypsum belongs to a biocompatible implant materials, promoting angiogenesis – the production of new blood vessels, which is extremely important for proper reconstruction process of bone at the implant site. Because of the fragility and the risk of breakdown of bone defects additions made using the gypsum, for years searched for materials with greater strength and durability. The solution proposed in the patent goes to meet these expectations. The second phase component of the powder is modified, synthetic hydroxyapatite in the form of powder or granules. In the developed material used in the new generation of modified hydroxyapatite essentially composed of carbonate ions, magnesium or titanium. Magnesium has an important impact on bone mineralization and determines its hardness.
Magnesium ions, like the carbonate ions occur naturally in bone, and their introduction into the structure of hydroxyapatite it is similar to bone apatite, which supports the process of integration, namely to connect to the biomaterial with the natural bone. The introduction of titanium raises the biocompatibility of the material, support the growth of osteogenic cells, and facilitates the formation of a bond between the implant and the bone. Such material also has bactericidal properties. Chitosan has been chosen in our invention as a component of the liquid phase due to its antibacterial and antifungal agents and a positive influence on the strength parameters materiałów.Do essence of the patent should also innovation consisting in that the solid phase prepared implant material may be a powder or a hydroxyapatite-gypsum microporous calcium phosphate granules and powder gipsowy.Korzyści the application wynalazkuInnowacyjne solution engineering biomaterials developed formulation implantacyjnemu provides a number of advantages over previously used for bone: • monitor the two-stage resorption • high biocompatibility (no irritation, allergy), an elevated introduced ions modifiers (Ti, Mg, CO3) • bioactivity (direct connection with bone implants) • ease of preparation and setting conditions are ali operating • setting and hardening at the implantation site in the isothermal process (no generation of heat which may cause death of tissue) • tight filling cavities • good mechanical strength • carriers for drugs and biological substances directly to the bone • the preferred composition and phase structure a necessary condition for the gradual and controlled resorption ( absorption in the body of patients) • act as skafoldu (scaffold) on which the recovering bone • antibacterial and antifungal • relatively low cena.Potencjał komercjalizacyjnyKompozytowe kościozastępcze materials produced in the method of the patent is a response to the demand of the medical subject for a controlled resorption. surgically handy, easy to implant biomaterials. The new approach allows to obtain multifunctional implant preparations with optimal performance, which can act as a bone skafoldów carriers and drugs, hormones or factors are bone substitutes biologicznych.Opracowane Polish original solution. Such formulations are so far not produced in the country. Their numerous advantages and predicted moderate manufacturing costs, as compared to similar and very expensive materials foreign older generation products make them interesting to implement in modern medical devices industry.
The resultant composite Polish implanting preparation can be used to fill bone defects in orthopedic surgery, maxillofacial surgery and dentistry. Team: Team Leader: prof. dr. Eng. Miroslaw WendekerWspółtwórcy: dr. Luke Grabowskimgr Eng.
Michael Gęcamgr Eng. Paul MagrytaIstota wynalazkuWynalazek can be used in a passenger car or truck. Its principle is to provide the car layout generation of a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen delivery to the engine intake system to aid combustion. The invention is intended for vehicles with engines mounted Diesla.Działanie invention is based on the production of a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen by means of electrolysis of water. This mixture is produced in a special device called a generator. Then, using a special injector is fed into the intake manifold of the internal combustion engine in a precise amount and in due time.
Operation of the generator and of the injector controlled by an electronic system that regulates the power generator and the amount of mixture administered depending on the current state of the drive unit. With increasing engine load the control circuit gradually increases the production of the mixture to maximum efficiency of the generator. While a fixed load on the motor generator is regulated to the maximum efficiency and in reducing the load control circuit turns off the generator while closing the dispensing of the mixture to the engine. The pressure sensor measures the pressure in the generator, which makes it possible to protect the system against excessive pressure. Initiation of operation of the system after exceeding the minimum rotational speed of the engine and obtaining the minimum voltage in the on-board generation system for electricity. The rotational speed is determined based on the pulse voltage on the original diesel fuel injector.
Additional connectors allow you to connect additional sensors – eg. Temperature sensor electrolyte. In addition, the connector is equipped with a universal serial bus for connecting the computer to the unit control circuit to control the current parameters of the entire system and modifications of the control algorithm. Presented system can be installed in any passenger car or truck equipped with a diesel engine. The only modification is necessary, a process similar to the installation of LPG, installation of the generator (preferably in the trunk of a car), lead the necessary power cables and installation, connection to the main control unit and the engine mount of the injector in the intake passage of the diesel engine. The scope of these services does not go in any respect except for the standard process of LPG and can be performed in a short time.
In summary, the driver moving his car and changing the load condition of the engine via the accelerator pedal indirectly influences the amount of fuel metered to the combustion chamber. For a fuel delivery signal is recorded by an electronic control unit and, depending on engine operating conditions is calculated, the appropriate dosage mixture of hydrogen and oxygen to the administration into the intake manifold of the engine. Thanks to this dual fuel engine operates, thereby changing the application process spalania.Korzyści wynalazkuZastosowanie method for reducing exhaust smoke in diesel engine by supplying additional fuel of hydroxide results in a change of the combustion process. Has been demonstrated by studies performed on a chassis dynamometer using a number of cars equipped with Diesel engine, this invention allows for reducing the concentration of toxic compounds in the exhaust gases, particularly opacity. For the NEDC test of English New European Driving Cycle in a vehicle with a diesel engine exhaust smoke decreases total almost 4-fold. Increased the formation of exhaust smoke followed by a sudden increase in motor load (eg.
A rapid acceleration of the vehicle or traction). This invention can be used in vehicles traveling in urban traffic where there is a repeated process of starting a miejsca.Potencjał komercjalizacyjnyMetoda reduction of exhaust smoke can be applied to any diesel engines, regardless of the type of fuel system, both in modern engines electronically controlled, and motors mechanically controlled. Means for restricting exhaust smoke in diesel engine allows a reduction in the concentration of toxic compounds in the exhaust gases, especially smoke splin.Zastosowanie invention is possible in units of driving cars, trucks and in stationary engines for ignition. The use of the method does not require modification of the original fuel supply system, allowing full functionality is maintained such a system. The solution is primarily intended for entrepreneurs: – designing power systems spalinowych- engines producing vehicles, engines Diesla- involved in the production of hydrogen production paliw- the transport sector, especially transport. Team Marek Dobosz (team manager), Olga Iwasińska-KowalskaIstota wynalazkuJedną of the more useful features of the laser beam is that it can propagate over long distances with the help of defining its own axis in a straight line. On the other hand, the same laser beam after focusing creates a constriction, which defines the center point in space.
The listed properties of the laser beam used in enormous quantity of optical systems in both research and in the technice.Najdokładniejszymi modern devices for measuring the displacements of both linear and angular interferometers are laser. algebra homework answer The inventors have proposed a new type of interferometer suitable in particular for the measurement of a micro-deviation angle: measurement system relative to the laser beam but also of angular same wiązki.We all interferometric measurement systems suitable optical element splits the laser beam into two parts to form two so-called. interferometer arms. The so formed two lines of the interferometer light waves experience a number of reflections, usually from flat reflective surface, and then using an appropriate optical element are recombined thereby produce the interference phenomenon. The physical changes occurring in any one interferometer arm caused by the influence of the measured value (linear or angular displacement) cause a change in the image of the interference giving rise to the determination of the measured values. If both arms of the interferometer is the same number of reflections or generally in both even or both odd number of reflections, when the laser beam is deflected at the entrance angle of such a system will not cause any significant changes in the output signal interference.
This is beneficial in the most common practical applications. The essence of the invention is to break the above principle, ie. To a single track of the interferometer used in a second even number and an odd number of reflections, i.e. that the difference number of reflections occurring in the two arms of the interferometer was odd. The inventors have shown that in this case the angular displacement of the input beam relative to the interferometric cause a significant change in the interference signals – namely, change the period of the observed bands. Using a suitable photo-detector consisting of a series of equidistant from each other fotoelementów (proposed inter alia in the patent) can process the change in the image interference to the corresponding electrical signal and the determination of the angular displacement zaistniałego. In this way, the proposed solution is a new method for measuring the angular deviation of the laser beam.
The described system can also be used for measuring the mechanical deviation angle (deviation angle microsensor). If we assume that the axis of the laser beam remains stable and will deflect angularly with respect to it a compact assembly of said interferometer to cause a corresponding change in the image, generating an interference signal proportional to the actuated deviation kątowego.Jeżeli accordance with the invention shown in Claim we use the proposed solution as super sensitive measurement system micro-deviations of the laser beam is its output signal can be used for controlling additional system deflection of the laser beam so that the indication of the measurement system still reduced to zero, which means the realization of the active stabilization of the angular beam laserowej.Korzyści wynalazkuSystem from the use of measurement in accordance with the present invention can fit within the dimensions of the order a few cubic mm monolithic acting team, resistant to most of the possible interference measurement. The invention allows for the construction of a device for stabilizing the direction of the axis of the laser beam suitable for incorporation in the laser unit. Currently used in interferometers for the measurement of angular units opto-mechanical components of a relatively large size can be replaced with a sensor for repeatedly smaller dimensions. The proposed method allows to obtain a resolution of up to individual nanoradianów, which is a value from 10 to 100 times greater than the achievable currently used methods, in particular as regards the measurement and stabilization of the angular deviations of laser beam axis. You can adjust the resolution, accuracy and range of the measuring device by the selection of parameters photodetector.
The sensor may be several tens of times cheaper than currently used also urządzenia.Potencjał komercjalizacyjnyUrządzenie according to the invention can be used in very wide fields of science and technology. The metrology based on laser technology may be mentioned, for example: systems in which the axis of the laser beam is a pattern (measurement of straightness), laser rangefinders, laser interferometers, the measuring equipment is used in which the spatial scanning laser beam systems for measuring known. rotational errors (ie .: pitch, yaw, roll) movements of machines (CMMs, numerically controlled machine tools, etc.), scanning microscopes (atomic force) which is the basis for measuring the angular deviation measurement of the laser beam reflected from the probe (ie. cantilivera). The laser production technologies, such as photolithography, laser treatment (laser cutting beam focused) laser marking apparatus (including the construction of a laser printer), mounting assemblies using laser beams as a reference position, and many others. Team: Zespółdr hab. Eng. Andrzej Gontarz (team manager), MSc.
Anna DziubińskaIstota wynalazkuNowe manufacturing capabilities air planar with one rib used in aircraft construction shown in inventions pL “method of forming a plastic półswobodnego flat products with a single rib” and “method of forming a plastic into a die closed flat products with a single rib.” Such articles in the form of a ribbed plates are mainly used in aviation on the brackets, covers, curtains, flaps.